There are few ways to go to Arashiyama from Kyoto City.
By Japan Railways (JR)
The fastest access from Kyoto Station to Arashiyama by the JR Sagano Line (or JR Sanin Line). The one way ride to Saga-Arashiyama Station takes 15 minutes and costs 230 yen. From Saga-Arashiyama Station, central Arashiyama can be reached in a 5-10 minute walk.
By Keifuku Railways (Randen)
The small trains on the Keifuku Arashiyama Line connect Arashiyama with Omiya Station at the intersection of Shijo Street and Omiya Street in central Kyoto (20 minutes, 200 yen). Keifuku Railways also provides access to Kitanohakubaicho Station in northern Kyoto, not far from Kinkakuji, Ryoanji and Ninnaji Temples (20-30 minutes, 200 yen). One transfer of trains is required along the way. Keifuku Arashiyama Station is located in the very center of Arashiyama. The is also lots of shops and restaurant at this station
By Hankyu Railways
From Kawaramachi or Karasuma Station in central Kyoto (Shijo Street), take the Hankyu Main Line to Katsura Station and transfer to the Hankyu Arashiyama Line for Arashiyama. The one way trip takes about 20 minutes and costs 220 yen. For those who use the Kansai Pass can use this mode of transportation. Hankyu Arashiyama Station is located on the opposite side of the river, about a 5-10 minute walk from central Arashiyama.
Bus lines connect Arashiyama with several parts of Kyoto, however, it is not covered by the 500yen 1day bus pass. City buses from Kyoto station – take bus #28, #71 or #72. It would take around 50mins from Kyoto Station, however, it is recommended to access Arashiyama by train to avoid the risk of getting stuck for hours in traffic jams during peaks hours.